is in the heart of Syrian Desert, and is often described as the bride of
the desert. Its magnificent remains tell of a as it is sometimes called,
is located near a hot-water spring called Afqa which make it an ideal halt
for caravans moving between Iraq and Al-Sham (present day Syria, Lebanon,
Holy Land and Jordan), trading in silk from China to the Mediterranean. This
strategic location made Palmyra prosper in a well-established kingdom from
the 2nd century BC.
conquered Syria, Palmyra flourished and became known as city of
visited Palmyra, he declared it a free city; in return, people of Tadmor
gratefully called their city Adrianapalmyra.
then, who were originally Syrian, came to rule heroic history during the
reign of Queen Zenobia.
Oasis,Palmyra, they treated its people extremely well. Emperor
declared it a Roman colony, which made it a luxurious one: new
constructions, streets, arches, temples and statues were built, making
Palmyra one of the greatest cities of Roman empire.
conflict between Persia and Rome reached its crisis, Rome resorted to ruler
of Palmyra for help. This ruler,
managed to withstand Persian armies, which led Romans to call him leader
of East. But he was soon assassinated in mysterious circumstances, and
his second wife,
a woman renowned for her exceptionally strong character, took power.
ruled Palmyra in a way that astonished both West and East. She was
exceptionally intelligent and attractive. She was a gifted linguist, an
eloquent speaker of Palmyrian, Greek and Egyptian. Zenobia had a wide
knowledge of politics, and in her court, she had many philosophers, scholars
Zenobia was soon fired by ambition of getting rid of Roman domination. In
268, during reign of Emperor Aurelian, she
all of Rome's territories. He was then very much engaged in internal
conflicts as well as external wars. This enabled her to take over whole
Syria, conquer Egypt and send armies to Asia Minor, gaining control thereby
of all land and sea ways to Far East. She took the title of
which was only used by emperor of Rome, and she had money coined with her
and her son's likeness upon it, without that of Rome emperor.
Emperor Aurelian took quick action in settling his internal disputes, and
started to plan his revenge on Queen Zenobia. He formed a new army for this
purpose, which proceeded through Turkey conquer Zenobia's army in its first
defensive position in Homs. It besieged Palmyra until it fell in 274. Queen
Zenobia was defeated and taken captive to Rome, fettered in chains of gold
where she poisoned herself.
destiny of the great kingdom of Palmyra was no better than that of its
queen; the city fell prey to looting and destruction. Archaeologists are
still working on excavations there in order to uncover queen's palace, which
was destroyed by Romans and replaced by a military camp.
is still embodied in the magnificent remains of what she built.
Palmyra ruins, which covers an area of 6 square kilometers, requires a full
day in order to form an adequate idea of the beauty of the remaining
architecture such as Baal temple, Arch of Triumph, the Amphitheater, the
Baths, the Straight Street, the Congress Council and the Cemeteries.